For female athletes training at any level of play and age, one of the challenges they may face is how to properly fuel with food……
Female Athlete Triad,by Rachel Niermann, RDN, LD Armes Family Cancer Care Center, Blanchard Valley Health System
For female athletes training at any level of play and age, one of the challenges they may face is how to properly fuel with food. Nutrition is a vital piece in performing and competing well. If done incorrectly, performance is not the only impacted factor. With time, a female may experience the “female athlete triad,” which is defined as a medical condition involving three interrelated components. These include long-term calorie or energy deficiency with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and diminished bone mineral density.
Energy or calorie deficiency
is the main cause of the female athlete triad. A deficiency occurs when the number
of calories consumed is less than the number of calories exerted during
physical activity. This may occur from the desire to achieve leanness, a conscious
avoidance of food groups, and problems with body image. These types of thoughts
and practices may lead to eating disorders. Among top athletes, studies show that 13.5 percent deal with an eating
disorder, far higher than figures reported for the general population. Eating disorders bring athletes down the path of calorie
deficits and mental health concerns. On the other hand, sometimes lacking knowledge
around the importance of fueling properly when undergoing activity leads
females to simply under-eat and inadequately sustain the demands of their
training. Either way, when a deficit occurs over an extended period, normal bodily
functions begin to be impacted.
When the body is not receiving enough calories, it will
adjust by shutting down nonessential functions within the body including
menstrual function, a part of reproductive health. Other psychological changes
that may occur with time are changes in metabolic rate, bone
health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health and psychological
health. Athletes will most likely notice their overall performance begin to
change before they see clinical symptoms. Not eating enough can quickly lead to
dehydration, electrolyte imbalances and feelings of fatigue, anxiety and
irritation. They may find it hard to concentrate and less motivated to do the activities
The second component of the triad is menstrual dysfunction
or amenorrhea (lack of menstrual cycle for three months or more). Women’s
bodies require enough calories to sustain adequate estrogen production to
induce normal menstruation. With extended calorie deficits, hormonal imbalances
occur resulting in either irregular cycles or amenorrhea. There are numerous
reasons why a female may experience irregular cycles or amenorrhea besides low
energy intake. It is important to ask questions about dietary intakes and
menstrual cycles to recognize the symptoms of female athlete triad to get the
individual the help they need. When a female is experiencing irregular cycles
or amenorrhea, they may be prescribed hormonal contraceptives to prevent or
slow bone loss. However, this does not solve the underlying problem. Due to
inadequate energy or calorie intake being the main cause of the triad, it is
important that athletes are still counseled on how and why they need to increase
The third component of the triad is bone loss or, in the
severe form, osteoporosis. As hormonal changes occur due to a prolonged calorie
deficit, less estrogen is produced. This is important in maintaining bone
health. Calcium and vitamin D are two nutrients vital for bone health as well.
Deficiency of calcium and vitamin D intakes may occur due to poor dietary
intakes. These risk factors put female athletes at increased risk for stress fractures.
From puberty to early twenties, is a vital time for bone-building in females.
It is important to recognize and treat symptoms of the female athlete triad to
prevent bone loss during a vital period in female lives.
It is not common for a female to experience all three
symptoms at the same time, and severities of the components may vary. The triad
can be thought of as a spectrum of symptoms with the most severe cases
including all three components. Studies have shown awareness and knowledge of
the triad and its health implications among female high school athletes and
coaches is limited.
Prevention begins with awareness of risks, signs and
symptoms of the triad. Begin educating females about nutrition and the
importance of practicing a healthy relationship with food at a young age. This
can lead to discussion about the triad and why nutrition is vital for safe
participation in physical activity.
Practicing sound, safe food handling is important…..
I saw a discussion on social media this week that said not to wash raw chicken before cooking it. But I always rinse mine with a mixture of lime or lemon juice and vinegar, which my mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother did as well. Why should I stop doing that now?
The fact is that you shouldn’t wash or rinse raw chicken or any other raw poultry before cooking it.
This is because rinsing or washing raw chicken doesn’t kill any bacterial pathogens such as campylobacter, salmonella, or other bacteria that might be on the inside and outside of raw chicken. But when you wash or rinse raw chicken, you are likely splashing chicken juices that can spread those pathogens in the kitchen and contaminate other foods, utensils, and countertops, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In fact, some estimates say the splatter can spread out and land on surfaces up to 3 feet away.
That’s a problem because pathogens such as campylobacter and salmonella can survive on surfaces such as countertops for up to 32 hours, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service.
The only way to kill these potentially dangerous bacteria is to cook the chicken to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit.
You likely saw the social media discussion the CDC had on Twitter this week, after the government agency sent a tweet advising consumers not to wash raw chicken before cooking it. That tweet was met with more than 1,000 responding comments debating the merits of whether or not to follow the CDC’s advice.
Although many consumers responded that they’ve always rinsed raw chicken before eating it—with many saying it’s a cultural custom for them to do so—it’s never a good idea to rinse raw poultry if you want to lessen your chance of developing a foodborne illness.
Practicing sound, safe food handling is important, considering that 48 million Americans get sick with a foodborne illness every year, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die, according to the CDC.
Additionally, after handling raw poultry or any other raw meat, it’s important to wash your hands with soap for at least 20 seconds, rinse them under warm running water, and dry them with a clean cloth or paper towel.
You should also wash any surfaces that might have come into contact with the raw chicken or its juices. Use hot, soapy water to rinse off the surfaces, let them dry, and then use a kitchen sanitizer on them.
Lastly, be sure to cook your chicken to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit, using a food thermometer to measure the temperature, the CDC advises.
Chow Line is a service of The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES) and its outreach and research arms, Ohio State University Extension and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). Send questions to Chow Line, c/o Tracy Turner, 364 W. Lane Ave., Suite B120, Columbus, OH 43201, or email@example.com.
Plant Operator in our Water & Sewer Dept. – – – Laborer in our Public Works Dept.
North Baltimore is a historic family-friendly community located in northwest Ohio about 15 miles south of Bowling Green and 12 miles north of Findlay, Ohio. Being the largest village by population in Wood County, North Baltimore local government provides both comprehensive water & sewer utility services along with public works maintenance functions. The Village is currently recruiting and accepting applications for the following positions:
Plant Operator in our Water & Sewer Dept.
Under direction, operates water treatment plant; performs routine laboratory testing of water samples; operates wastewater treatment plant and performs maintenance and repair of water distribution system. Must be able to obtain a class B CDL, be willing to work a rotating shift on weekends, able to work some Holidays, and get Lab certification license. Wages dependent upon qualifications.
Qualifications include, but are not limited to, completion of secondary education with training in water treatment plant operation or one (1) to two (2) years’ experience operating a water treatment plant or equivalent combination. Must be able to pass a background check and be subject to periodic drug and alcohol screening.
Laborer in our Public Works Dept.
A Public Works Laborer is responsible for the operation of a variety of construction and maintenance equipment and for performing manual labor activities as needed and/or required by the Department Supervisor. Included is road maintenance, park maintenance, signage, mowing, snow plowing, and other related areas.
Qualifications include, but are not limited to, obtaining a class B CDL, must be able to pass a background check and be subject to periodic drug and alcohol screening.
Interested applicants can pick up an employment application at 205 N. Main St. in North Baltimore or have one sent to them by contacting administrative staff at (419) 257 2394. A properly completed application, with references, must be submitted to Administrator Michael Brillhart at the Village of North Baltimore, 205 North Main Street, North Baltimore, Ohio 45872.